Category Archives: Southern Mongolia

Book Review: Genocide on the Mongolian Steppe

Genocide on the Mongolian Steppe:
First hand Accounts of Genocide in Southern Mongolia During the Chinese Cultural Revolution
Volume 1

Originally published in Japanese, Eghebatu Togochog, Director of the Southern Mongolian Human Rights Information Center, translated it into English. In doing so, Enghebatu provides a invaluable resource to understand how Southern (Inner) Mongolia was separated from their northern half and despite the name, no longer has a Mongolian majority.

Before the collapse of the Manchurian Qing dynasty, Mongols enjoyed happy, prosperous lives where the Chinese were forbidden to settle and farm their land. Today, they are treated poorly, take the case of Mr. Mergen. In 2011, while trying to prevent coal trucks from taking a shortcut through his grazing lands, one of the drivers knocked him and his horse down and dragged him for 200 yards before stopping. To add insult to injury and death, he justified his actions with ethnic slurs. Mergen is just one example among millions of Mongols treated as second class citizens in their ancestral homeland.

In Genocide on the Mongolian Steppe, the author, History professor Yang Haiying describes the transition of Southern Mongolia from equals to the Manchu rulers, through the influx of Chinese settlers, Japanese occupation, Chinese Communist Party domination and the depravity of the Cultural Revolution. We are gifted the opportunity to read about it from those who experienced the results of the insidious campaign against them.

This book should be required reading. If you believe in the march to socialism you’ll see how sincere, believing Party members were victimized, abused and even murdered despite being committed members of the cause. On the other hand, if you like liberty and freedom, the book outlines the conniving and underhanded techniques used; some of which you may recognize today.

This book is an indictment of the Chinese Communist Party for Crimes Against Humanity for the treatment of the Southern Mongolians.

The old adage, “Power corrupts, absolute power corrupts absolutely” is an appropriate description of the perpetrator of the Cultural Revolution, Chairman Mao, with the blood of tens of millions on his hands. Today, there is a new leader for life and the potential for the extermination of whole peoples.

Available from Amazon, Barnes and Noble, and Xlibris

SMHRIC statement at “Resist Xi Jinping – Dictator of Unfree World”

The following is a statement made by Enghebatu Togochog, Director of SMHRIC, at the rally:

Good afternoon!

Today, we Southern Mongolians, Tibetans, Uyghurs, Taiwanese and Chinese are here to express our strong protest to the Chinese Government and the Chinese leader Xi Jinping as the United Nations General Assembly is being held here in this building behind us.

As you all know China is a colonial power that invaded and colonized Southern Mongolia, Tibet and East Turkistan. And the Chinese regime is an authoritarian regime that not only oppresses the people of these occupied nations but also oppresses their own people, and even is extending its long arm to Taiwan and beyond.

Today, we talk about terrorism. We talk about ISIS. We talk about extremism. But, the world is still indifferent to what China is doing to the Southern Mongolians, Tibetans, Uyghurs, and Chinese themselves.

Don’t forget, the Chinese regime or the Chinese Communist Party is the largest terrorist organization on earth that is oppressing one quarter of the world’s population. Citizens of China have no basic human rights, no fundamental freedoms!


CERD China review questions and concluding observation excerpts regarding Southern Mongolia

The following are excerpts on issues related to Southern Mongolia from UN TV video archives of the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) 96th Session’s review of China in Geneva from August 10-13, 2018, and the Committee’s concluding observation published on Sep 19, 2018:

Sep 25, 2018
New York

The following are excerpts on issues related to Southern Mongolia from UN TV video archives of the United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) 96th Session’s review of China in Geneva from August 10-13, 2018, and the Committee’s concluding observation published on Sep 19, 2018:

CERD China review concluding observation on Southern Mongolia:

Resettlement and land expropriation

26. The Committee is concerned by reports that large numbers of farmers and nomadic herders, including from ethnic autonomous areas, have lost their traditional lands and livelihoods owing to poverty alleviation and ecological restoration resettlement measures that could be seen as aggressive development models. While noting the statements delivered by the State party delegation concerning assistance and compensation provided to individuals who have been resettled through these measures, the Committee is nevertheless concerned by reports that compensation for expropriated property is often insufficient to maintain an adequate standard of living; the Committee is concerned, for example, by reports that many resettled ethnic Mongolians have not received sufficient compensation for the loss of their traditional livelihoods as herders owing to a ban on livestock grazing. It is also concerned by reports that, despite an official policy of voluntary resettlement, in practice informed consent is not consistently obtained (arts. 2 and 5).

27. The Committee recommends that the State party fully implement the recommendations contained in paragraphs 30 and 31 of the concluding observations of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (E/C.12/CHN/CO/2). It also recommends that, in cases of resettlement in ethnic minority areas, the authorities work closely and effectively with ethnic minority government officials and communities and provide financial allowances that ensure an adequate standard of living, as well as livelihood restoration measures and, where needed, linguistic and cultural integration assistance.

Ethnic Mongolians

45. The Committee is concerned by reports of abuses by State authorities against ethnic Mongolians peacefully protesting against the confiscation of land and development activities that have resulted in environmental harm. The Committee is also concerned by reports of a significant reduction in the availability of Mongolian-language public schooling (arts. 2 and 5).

46. The Committee recommends that the State party ensure the ability of ethnic minorities to safely conduct peaceful protests, and investigate and sanction any allegations of abuse or harassment during such incidents, whether inflicted by private or State agents. The Committee also recommends that the State party ensure the availability of Mongolian-language public education for ethnic Mongolians, including those residing outside of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.


47. The Committee welcomes the information provided by the State party, including Hong Kong, China, on the measures they have taken to promote the employment of ethnic minorities. While noting the State party’s regional unemployment rate statistics, the Committee observes with concern, however, that they are not disaggregated by ethnicity. The Committee is also concerned by the lack of information from the State party about labour inspections and investigations relating to racially discriminatory practices in employment. It notes with concern that most of the 51 employment-related racial discrimination complaints handled by the Equal Opportunities Commission in Hong Kong, China between April 2013 and March 2018 were discontinued owing to a lack of substance. The Committee is also concerned by reports that ethnic Uighurs, Mongolians and Tibetans, together with certain other ethnic minorities in China, including Hong Kong, China, often face discrimination in job advertisements and recruitment processes. The Committee is further concerned that, from 2015 to 2017, the Labour Affairs Bureau in Macao, China did not open any cases relating to racial discrimination (arts. 2, 5 and 6).


Specific Cases of China’s Violation of Rights of the Mongolians

On August 4, 2018, the Southern Mongolian Human Rights Information Center (SMHRIC) submitted a list of specific cases of China’s violation of rights the Southern Mongolians to the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) as the review of the People’s Republic of China by the Committee was approaching. Based on SMHRIC’s full submission to CERD on July 4, 2018, this shorter version of submission outlined specific cases and key issues and was distributed among the CERD members in series of meetings, conferences and other preparatory events prior to the review in Geneva.


China demolishes Mongolian herders’ houses in freezing cold

China demolishes Mongolian herders’ houses in freezing cold
January 8, 2016
New York

Mongolian herders from Inget Gachaa, Tungnuur Som of Alshaa Left Banner attempting to block the officials from demolishing their properties (2016-01-04)

As the temperature drops to below 15 Celsius, Chinese authorities in western Southern (Inner) Mongolia’s Alshaa Left Banner (“a la shan zuo qi” in Chinese), Alshaa Right Banner (“a la shan you qi” in Chinese) and Eznee Banner (“e ji na qi” in Chinese) launched a massive demolition project to start the New Year. Houses, fences and other infrastructure of the Mongolian herders in these areas have been bulldozed by the local authorities without free, prior and informed consent.

A short video clip that the Southern Mongolian Human Rights Information Center (SMHRIC) received from the affected area of Alshaa Left Banner shows that helpless herders attempted to block the officials from demolishing their properties while a bulldozer tore down their house in the background.

“The local government officials simply told us that our houses and fences must be demolished as their bulldozers already started the demolition in our community,” a Mongolian herder named Tuyaa from Eznee Banner told SMHRIC in frustration over the phone. “How can we survive this freezing winter without shelters for ourselves and our livestock?”

“Bulldozers are not in my place yet, but we are determined to resist the demolition,” Tuyaa told SMHRIC. “This is our ancestral land. We have every right to live on our own land.”

According to an official document entitled “Proposal to Implement the Work for Remodeling and Renovating Buildings at Risk of Collapse in Rural Pastoralist and Farming Communities in Alshaa Right Banner” was issued recently by the Banner’s Party Committee. In Alshaa Right Banner alone, seven semi-pastoralist Gachaas (a “gachaa” consists of several villages), nine pastoralist Gachaas where livestock grazing is partially banned, and 24 pastoralist Gachaas where livestock grazing is completely banned are affected by the demolition project as part of the “Ten-Coverage Engineering”.

The so-called “Ten-Coverage Engineering” is a three-year showcase project by the Autonomous Region Government, aiming at “demolishing buildings at risk of collapse, guarantying safe drinking water, urbanization of rural communities, delivering electricity, radio and television services to all villages, developing school infrastructure, improving school safety, establishing standardized hygiene stations and cultural centers, setting up convenient supermarket chains in rural villages, and guarantying minimum pension for permanent residents in pastoralist and farming communities”.

The official aforementioned document proposes to carry out a speedy urbanization of rural Mongolian pastoralist communities with a very limited amount of lump-sum payments – as little as 10,000 yuan (approximately $1,500 USD) in some cases – for each household.

“This is nothing but a decisive move by the Chinese to wipe out our pastoralist culture and way of life through urbanization,” a Mongolian herder from the affected community named Dambaa said in a voice statement. “The heart of Mongolian culture and identity is pastoralism. Once our pastoralism is wiped out, naturally we will cease to exist as a distinct people.”

In the most recent case, on December 17, 2015, riding horses and camels, nearly 100 Mongolian herders from Eznee Banner took to the streets to urge the local government to protect herders’ legal rights and punish the Chinese from the neighboring province of Gansu for illegally occupying their grazing lands.

As China expedites its expropriation of the herders’ grazing lands and extraction of mineral resources in Southern Mongolia, the once beautiful verdant region of Alshaa has been targeted by China’s booming mining industries. The scarce and precious underground water system has been depleted, and the fragile ecosystem has been destroyed. The expanding Chinese mines and encroaching Chinese settlers are threatening the very existence of the unique culture of Mongolian camel herders in this area.

Alshaa herder’ houses demolished (2016-01-04)



Chinese official documents justifying demolition





Hada family goes on hunger strike on Human Rights Day

Hada family goes on hunger strike on Human Rights Day
December 10, 2015
New York
The following is an English translation of a statement for the Human Rights Day 2015 by Mr. Hada who had served 19 years in prison in Southern Mongolia on charges of “splitting the country and engaging in espionage” (English translation by SMHRIC):

Five Years of Plight and Wretchedness

Tomorrow is International Human Rights Day. Five years ago today, I was supposedly freed. However, I was thrown into a “black jail” and imprisoned there for four years. On December 3 and 5, 2010, my wife, Xinna, and son, Uiles, were also arrested. Later on, I found out that the purpose of arresting them was to force me to abandon my beliefs and cooperate with the authorities.

After a nine-month detention, Uiles was released on bail pending trial. A year later, the authorities claimed again that Uiles was guilty but would not be sentenced. Xinna was sentenced to three years in prison with five years reprieve following her yearlong detention. According to relevant laws and regulations, Xinna’s prison term was supposed to expire on December 2, but the authorities claimed that it will not happen before 2017.

Over the past five years, we have undergone unbearable ordeals. All of our rights have either been taken away or restricted. We have been treated like criminals. Your organization and others in the news media have already reported on these in a timely manner. Therefore, allow me to skip the details today. The only thing I would like to point out is that since mid-November, the control from the authorities has been exacerbated. I have been barred from having relatives visit me and deprived of my right to communication.

Regarding either prison or black jail, except for some special cases, no other family has ever been put into this situation. People are saying that 2015 is the year in which Chinese human rights conditions have deteriorated the most. I still think it is possible that the situation will deteriorate further. Therefore, my family has decided to go on a one-day hunger strike tomorrow to express our strong protest.


December 9, 2015

After 19 years of imprisonment Hada still treated as prisoner

After 19 years of imprisonment Hada still treated as prisoner
October 22, 2015
New York

Mr. Hada, a Southern (Inner) Mongolian political prisoner who completed 19 years of imprisonment in Chinese prisons last December, is still treated by the Chinese authorities as a prisoner, according to a statement from his wife Xinna to the Southern Mongolian Human Rights Information Center (SMHRIC).

Pictures sent to the SMHRIC show that Chinese State Security personnel are guarding Hada closely. On the stairways and in hallways, State Security dispatches set up folding beds and chairs as they took turns monitoring every single activity of Hada around the clock.

Chinese State Security dispatch monitoring Hada in the hallway (SMHRIC photo)

Chinese State Security dispatch monitoring Hada in the hallway (SMHRIC photo)

“This is one of two State Security dispatches who watch Hada in the hallway,” Xinna explained about one of the pictures sent to the SMHRIC. “The one seen in the picture left hastily upon seeing I was taking pictures of him.”

“State Security agents squeeze themselves in this small space, no larger than 9 square meters, to monitor Hada every day,” Xinna said in the statement. “This is the so-called ‘freedom’ Hada is given. The pictures tell you that Hada’s imprisonment is still continuing. Only the place has changed.”

Folding bed is setup by the Chinese State Security to guard Hada around the clock (SMHRIC photo)

Folding bed is setup by the Chinese State Security to guard Hada around the clock (SMHRIC photo)

Chairs and electric heaters used by State Security personnel who monitor Hada around the clock (SMHRIC photo)

Chairs and electric heaters used by State Security personnel who monitor Hada around the clock (SMHRIC photo)

Chair and folding bed of the Chinese State Security agents in front of Hada's door (SMHRIC photo)

Chair and folding bed of the Chinese State Security agents in front of Hada’s door (SMHRIC photo)

Put under a de facto house arrest in an apartment owned by the Public Security Bureau, Hada told the SMHRIC that he is treated no better than a prisoner.

“My health has been deteriorating,” Hada said in a message sent to the SMHRIC. “Now I am only about 50 kilograms. During torture and maltreatment, my weight even dropped to 40 kilograms.”

Hada said that the State Security agents not only monitored him closely but that they also followed him everywhere.

“Once I went to the Hohhot Train Station to pick up the Mongolian traditional dairy food my relatives sent to me. State Security agents followed and asked me to open the package,” Hada said in a short statement to the SMHRIC. “I refused and complained loudly that the Chinese authorities are treating me badly and unfairly as a Mongolian,” Hada continued. “Lacking confidence with what they were doing, the State Security agents disappeared into the crowd as many Mongolian passengers gathered to help me.”

In 1995, Hada was arrested and later sentenced to 15 years in prison on charges of “splitting the country and engaging in espionage.” On December 10, 2010, he completed his full prison term. Yet, not only did the Chinese authorities refuse to free him, but they placed him under another 4 years of extrajudicial detention in a “black jail” in suburban Hohhot.

Despite the torture and maltreatment he has been subjected to in the past 20 years, Hada has consistently refused to admit that he committed any crime. He is still determined to sue the government and the Public Security authorities for illegally sentencing him to 15 years in prison, holding him for another 4 years of extrajudicial detention, and maltreating and persecuting him and his family members.

His wife, Xinna, was arrested on December 4, 2010, on a trumped-up charge of “involvement in illegal business,” referring to her Mongolian Studies Bookstore. In April 2012, she was sentenced to three years in prison with five years reprieve on the same charge.

In 2002, the then 17-year-old Uiles, son of Hada and Xinna, was arrested and sentenced to two years in prison for another trumped-up case of “involvement in robbery.”

On December 5, 2010, Uiles was arrested for “illegal drug possession.” After nearly a year of detention, he was discharged but was placed under “residential surveillance,” a form of house arrest.

Last week, Uiles was arrested for “obstructing official business,” and currently he is still held in the Bogot City (“bao tou shi” in Chinese) Public Security Bureau Detention Center.

Hada: “Mongolia is a Great Nation”

Hada: “Mongolia is a Great Nation”
SMHRIC Sep 7, 2015
New York


The following is an English translation of an article written by Mr.Hada who served 19 years in jail in Southern Mongolia on charges of “splitting the country and engaging in espionage”:

The following is a discussion of the land and people of Southern Mongolia, a region historically part of Greater Mongolia but in recent history has been colonized and plundered by the Chinese. For the sake of this discussion, I have recognized Southern Mongolia as separate from the Mongolian nation as a whole in order to emphasize its size and strength and by no means to discriminate fellow Mongolians living elsewhere.

The total population of the Mongolians excluding those nominally regarded as “Mongolians” in Southern Mongolia is three million. Depending on the criteria being used, the number of nations or peoples around the world is considered to be between 2000 to 8000. Those counted as “larger” includes more than 200 nations; Southern Mongolia is inarguably one of them.

Another criterion required to meet in order to define a nation is “large” is if the nation has formed an educational system spanning from elementary school to college in its native language. An increasing number of Southern Mongolians earning PhDs in Mongolian fulfills this criterion.

Among the world’s nearly 200 countries, there are a great number of them that have populations less than one million and occupy territories much smaller than Southern Mongolia. Southern Mongolia has the firm population and territorial foundation to create its own nation state. People around the world have no reason to disqualify this claim.

Mongolia is not only a large nation but a royal nation. Chinggis Khan, the founder of the Mongol empire, spread Mongol rule from the Pacific to Atlantic Ocean and is considered to be the emperor of mankind.

The total global population of Mongolians tops ten million, not including those who have been partially assimilated and have yet to restore their national identities. If you also include the population of Tatar origin, the population of indigenous Mongolians would top 100 million. How many other nations have population more than 100 million on our planet?

Therefore, the Southern Mongolians are by no means an “ethnic minority”. It is an undeniable fact that they are the indigenous people of a great nation. In order to serve their hidden political agenda, the Chinese discriminated against us and downgraded us to an “ethnic minority.” It serves a political agenda of the Chinese to belittle the Mongolian nation, diminish national self-confidence and cause them to abandon any aspirations of self-determination. The Chinese government skillfully hides the true nature of colonization in occupied nations by employing the term “ethnic minority” over more legitimate terms such as “indigenous people” or “indigenous nation.” Furthermore, this alleged “minority” status is used in contrast to the 1.5 billion Han majority. Why must we be compared to them? Why isn’t our nation being compared with the Vatican whose population is less than one thousand?

Are we really destined to the status of “ethnic minority” imposed on us by the Chinese? Are we truly devoid of the capability of building and running our own nation state? Why don’t we make our mind to fight for our future? We have no reason to sit back.

In summary, we are not a weak and small “ethnic minority”. We are the great and indigenous nation of the Mongolian Plateau. The Chinese colonial regime will inevitably collapse and in the near future we will be free. My fellow Mongolians, never give up, never lose confidence!

June 17, 2015

Herders protest military base, one detained for posting messages online

Herders protest military base, one detained for posting messages online
August 22, 2014
New York

Mr.Davshilt and Mr.Ganbold from Durbed Banner protesting the Chinese military training base’s occupation and destruction of their grazing land (SMHRIC)

On August 21, 2014, Mongolian herders from western Southern (Inner) Mongolia’s Durbed Banner (“si zi wang qi” in Chinese) and Sunid Right Banner (“su ni te you qi”in Chinese) protested the Zureh Military Training Base’s (“zhu ri he” in Chinese) occupation and destruction of their grazing lands.

At least twenty Mongolian herders from Sunid Right Banner were blocked by the local Chinese Public Security Bureau personnel from joining the protest. At least one Mongolian herder named Shuangping was detained yesterday for posting information including the “Grazing Land Lease and Management Certificate” on Chinese social media to rally the Mongolian herders to rise up to fight for their legal rights.

According to written communications the Southern Mongolian Human Rights Information Center (SMHRIC) received from the affected communities, a total of 708 Mongolian herder households consisting of 2,907 individuals were forcefully relocated from their grazing lands to “immigration villages” near their respective Banner capitals. Very little compensation was given to them by the authorities.

Appropriating more than 1,066 square kilometers grazing lands from these rural Mongolian herders’ communities, the Zureh Military Training Base is China’s largest and most modern military training base directly managed by the Beijing Military Command.

According to the Chinese official press Xinhua News, the Chinese People’s Liberation Army (PLA) is preparing to carry out a five-nation anti-terror military exercise code-named “Peace Mission 2014” between August 24 and 29, 2014 in Zureh Military Training Base. Around 7,000 personnel from all member nations of Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) including China, Russia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgystan and Tajikistan will carry out the exercise in an effort to quell “regional terrorism”.

“Almost everyday, tanks and fighter jets shake the earth with thunderous noises and blanket the sky with dust and smoke,” Mr. Davshilt, a leader of the local herders from Durbed Banner, told SMHRIC over the phone, “this is not only destroying our beautiful and peaceful grasslands but also seriously disturbing people and livestock alike.”

“Last year a herder who stumbled on an unexploded ordnance was killed by the blast,” Davshilt said during the interview, “livestock that cross their fences are confiscated and the owners given heavy fines.”

In an attempt to halt the military base’s destruction of their grazing lands, local herders organized themselves to carry out protests near the base multiple times and appealed to almost all level of government including the Central Government in Beijing. All appeals have been ignored and protesters were forcefully dispersed and beaten up. In March 2013, led by the Durbed Banner government officials, the local Public Security personnel arrived in the regional capital Hohhot to block the herders from travelling to Beijing, preventing them from making an appeal to the Chinese National People’s Congress. Protestors were physically assaulted by the Public Security personnel before being taken back to their homes.

“Dear displaced fellow herders from Durbed and Sunid Banners’ Zureh area, we must not tolerate this any more. We demand the Beijing Military Command respect our legal rights and pay us adequate compensation. We must continue our protest. It is possible that the State Council itself is involved in appropriating our compensation. We really need to continue our protest and appeal to higher authorities,” Davshilt rallied the herders in a video statement taken yesterday near the Zureh Military Training Base.

“Let us join together to fight for our rights!” Mr.Ganbolod, another leader from the same community said in the video statement holding his clenched fist.

The following is a list of phone numbers of the herders who are willing to speak to news media:
Gansukh: 158-4806-8307
Shuangping: 136-6479-9489
Otgonbayar: 139-4894-8781
Shinsoyol: 150-4896-7802
Ganbold: 130-8857-8187
Davshilt: 182-4740-9120

Topics in Southern Mongolian Human Rights March 2014